When an exception arises, how does the employee react?
The McDonalds cashier, with no autonomy, is frozen. An exception breaks the system. When a designer at IDEO observes something unique, they take note and start designing solutions.
Luckily, McDonalds has developed a process that’s effective so frequently that their employees don’t have to deal with many exceptions. On the other hand, IDEO selects only the most skilled and capable people knowing they will need to adapt to various circumstances.
Where do you want to go? A more fail proof process, or better people who can handle surprise?